GL2020 Program

09:00 – 09:30Welcome session
  • Dr. Giovanni De Simone, Director of the CNR Central Library «G. Marconi», Rome Welcome Address
  • Mr. Jerry Sheehan, Deputy Director National Library of Medicine; National Institutes of Health, United States
    The continuing transition toward open science is fundamentally changing both the ways in which scientists communicate research findings and what they communicate. Open science places emphasis on enhanced access not only to published research findings but also to pre-published literature (preprints), underlying research data, study protocols, and other products of the research process.
    This presentation will review the transformation in scholarly communication associated with open science and illustrate the ways in which libraries and other information service providers can support it, drawing on examples from the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Particular attention will be devoted to efforts to support open science as part of the ongoing response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

09:30 – 11:00Opening Panel session
  • Vicary T. et al.
    The Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF) seeks to promote the sustainable utilization of the living marine resources across the Eastern Central Atlantic between Cape Spartel and the Congo river through informed development of fisheries management actions. Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) is contributing to the CECAF-PESCAO project “Improved Regional Fisheries Governance in Western Africa”, by developing a comprehensive inventory of marine fisheries research covering both primary literature (available online on both commercial and free to use platforms) and grey literature available at institutions holdings and not always accessible online. This assessment of fisheries management research in the region will enable CECAF, ASFA and, critically, member countries the means to access relevant contextual and discernible science-based materials and publications. Cataloguing and subsequent bibliometric analysis of large amounts of information specific to regional fisheries management will encourage solid research-based fisheries management recommendations at the national level by highlighting areas of fisheries management to investigate.
    This paper presents the preliminary results of the research inventory and bibliometric analysis, comparing the amount and type of information available in primary and grey literature collections for the region and at individual country level.
  • Subirats Coll I. et al.
    Access to scientific research on agriculture is a key ingredient in making informed decisions and boosting agricultural productivity. Despite the fact that we live in the digital age and in a highly connected world, many organizations have no possibilities to digitally disseminate their research, especially in low-income countries. Since 1974, the International System for Agricultural Science and Technology (AGRIS) mandate has been collecting and making information in the area of agriculture and related sciences globally available. The AGRIS bibliographic database contains publications, journal articles, and unique material from 150 countries. In order to increase the discovery and accessibility of scientific research, AGRIS is focusing on two objectives. On one side, AGRIS supports capacity development, ensuring that organizations are able to produce quality metadata and disseminate them through AGRIS. On the other side, AGRIS relies on technology to provide more services and make data accessible both for humans and machines. As an example, AGRIS has recently launched the Open Data Set initiative, enabling the reuse of the AGRIS database to create connections with other resources, deriving new knowledge, and increasing the visibility of research otherwise hidden. This paper will present the last developments in the context of AGRIS.
  • Hashemi S. S., Shahrabi Farahani R.
    Grey literature is an important source of information due to the uniqueness of the content that gets published. Grey literature is one way to search for information in emerging or less popular research areas. It seems that it reinforce research and accelerate continuous movement towards having a scientific society. Any source of information that has not been released to the market after printing is considered as grey literature. Grey literature is a special resource that is created for a specific purpose and audience and is replicated finitely. It is impermanent and invisible, and cannot be seen in the directory of publishers, bookshops and libraries. The National Library of Iran was founded in 1937. The main goal of this organization is collecting, preserving, organizing and disseminating information about printed and non-printed works in Iran, and taking measures and making decisions to guarantee the accuracy, ease and speed of research and study in all fields to promote national culture. In order to achieve these goals, and according to the law, all private and public publishers are required to submit a copy of their publications (book and non -book materials) to the National Library of Iran. There are more than 900 thousand issues in the grey literature group at the National Library, over 11732 issues of which are in the field of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. After being collected, these resources are organized and made available to users and used by many researchers daily. In this research, the process of collecting, organizing and disseminating of information of these sources in the National Library of Iran will be expressed as a successful practical experience.

11:00 – 11.15 Break
11:15 – 13:00Plenary SessionAreas of Study with Applications to Grey Literature
  • Cui Y.
    [Purpose/significance] This paper discusses how to effectively construct " Folk grey literature "under the background of preserving human civilization and protecting cultural memory, including how to build the Literature resource construction subject, build cooperation platform and make the construction and research of " Folk grey literature " sustainable. It is expected to provide more ideas for the construction of " Folk grey literature " in China. [Method/process] Based on the investigation and research on the construction of folk grey literature in public libraries in China through the methods of field investigation, telephone communication and website collection. The contents include: collection, document type, cataloging, development and utilization, etc. Focus on the analysis of representative cases.Through the effective integration of Chinese folk grey literature resources, it is found that the domestic public libraries "folk grey literature" construction are faced with several problems, such as the difficulty of resource collection, the lack of multi-party cooperation platform and the unsustainability of construction and research. As a result, the demand for the construction of the whole folk grey literature has been put forward.[Result/conclusion] Bring forward the possible plans for the construction of folk grey literature, such as the standardization of metadata, the systematization, standardization and unification of literature resources. It's also proposed a new way for the development and utilization of folk grey literature construction.
  • Farace D., Frantzen J.
    In September 2019, the first seminar of its kind dealt with grey literature and the circular economy i.e. an economic system aimed at eliminating waste and the continual use of resources. The information compiled in advance of that seminar and the interest shown by the participants provides the lead-up to this project. Grey literature resources are a significant part of the information industry and like other industries in a circular economy such as textile, construction, and logistics, the role and value of these resources must be understood and demonstrated. This study looks at how grey literature resources are a vehicle for other industries in the circular economy, and at the same time how they themselves are part of an industry, which drives the circular economy. This study first sets out to gain insight into the opinions of GreyNet's community of practice with regard to the circular economy and to determine if there is consensus. This will be carried out via an online community-based survey. The study will further look at the way in which grey literature resources can be seen as a vehicle for other industries in the circular economy. This part of the study will be carried out via a review of the literature based on a sample of a number of industries. Together, these results will allow us to explore good practices in generating societal awareness to the circular economy and in doing so, drive awareness to the value of grey literature resources. As with any explorative research, the outcome has yet to be fully defined. Nevertheless, it is expected that the findings of the survey will indicate a sufficient level of consensus within GreyNet's community of practice. And, the review of the literature will demonstrate that grey literature can be seen as a vehicle for other industries in driving awareness to the circular economy. Nevertheless, differences in the volume of references to grey literature may occur depending on the type of industry included in the sample.
  • Haynes A.
    Many aspects of grey literature have been extensively researched -- notably its classification, preservation, retrieval, and applications. The question of how to enhance the quality of its production has, however, received less attention. Drawing on development work in the School of Technology in the University, this presentation aims to identify techniques used to support early-career researchers in the development of posters. The techniques resulted in (often bold) editorial revisions concerning text, design, and presentation. This session will provide examples.
  • Bianchi S. et al.
    Archives often include documents that cannot be considered publications nor properly grey, yet they maintain their documentary value and play a role of primary sources for the specialists. These documents, indeed, can help archivists to reveal the sedimentation process of the archive itself and preserve the authentic context of the documentary production. They also appear to be very useful for the community of researchers and scholars. This happens more frequently with oral archives which include 'non-conventional sources', thus bringing together audio documents, fieldworks notes, correspondence, slipcases, compact cassettes. At the cross-road of two disciplines, Archival Science and Grey Literature, this paper aims to argue the applicability of the concept of grey to this wide range of documentary materials, by showing the experience of Archivio Vi.Vo, a regional project aiming at building a model for archiving, preserving, managing and disseminating audio documents.
  • Savic D.
    The onset of the cold war in 1947 ushered in an era of fear and uncertainty in nuclear technology. The Atoms for Peace speech delivered by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in 1953 spurred on the founding of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1957. The IAEA's statutes recognized the need to "…foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy". Thus, with the IAEA Board of Governors approval in 1969, INIS was established in May 1970, fifty years ago, as a mechanism to provide access to a comprehensive collection of references to the world's nuclear literature. INIS has grown from a modest 25 members to a unique global information resource with more than 150 members. It maintains a repository of over 4.3 million bibliographic records, of which 1.6 million are full-text. Each year, more than one million visitors make 1.9 million searches, viewing 3.2 million web pages. This paper discusses ways INIS operates, the role of its members, the importance of international cooperation, contribution to nuclear science, information sharing goals, and the benefits society has from open access to nuclear information.
  • Maddaluno P.
    The State General Accounting Department of the Ministry of Economy and Finance regularly publishes public documentation in a digital format and makes it available to citizens, in accordance with the shared principles of Administrative Law and the Digital Administration Code, dematerialisation and transparency. The Luca Pacioli Library collaborates with this project by scanning the following documents, prior to the dematerialisation process and they are available on the website of the Library: • all Statements of Accounts from 1861 to 2004; • the historical volumes of state employee expenses before the Conto Annuale; • the documents of the Public Spending Commission (1982-2002); • documents relative to the ninetieth (1959) and the centenary (1969) anniversaries of the Accounting Department. It is an ongoing project and is based also for the accessibility requirements on the availability of the Library Staff. The Library also participates in the process of preserving Public Source Documentation by cataloging the paper version of documents which are online in the SBN. It also carries out promotion campaigns through showcasing Grey Literature These publications are relevant to all economic and social (pensions, health, education etc) sectors.

13:00 – 14:00 Break
14:00 – 15:30Plenary SessionThe Influence of Grey Literature on Open Access
  • Schöpfel J. et al.
    Problem/goal HAL is the national open repository for documents and data from French scientists. The deposits are organized in institutional portals and collections from research units and projects. The paper analyse how grey literature is represented in the collections of French research laboratories of ten major French research universities on HAL. Research method/procedure The paper presents original empirical results from a follow-up study to former research (Schöpfel et al. 2018, 2019), based on the assessment of HAL deposits of more than 1,700 research laboratories from ten large French research universities (excellence initiative). These laboratories cover the whole range of scientific disciplines. Data on deposits (documents, records) has been extracted for each laboratory and each output type (articles, books, reports, data…) through the HAL API. This paper puts the focus on the grey part of the academic output, in particular conference papers, reports, working papers, theses and dissertations. Empirical results are provided on the percentage of grey items in HAL, on the part of open access, differences between grey document types, disciplinary specificities and institutional strategies. Anticipated results The proposed study will take our former research on HAL laboratory collections a step further, with a representative sample of more than 1,700 laboratories covering the whole range of scientific disciplines and including more document types and some categories of research data, especially image and video files. It will also make the link with a nationwide survey more than ten years ago, on the development of open access in France and on the place of grey literature in French open repositories (Stock & Schöpfel, 2009) (Schöpfel & Prost, 2010). We will present empirical data for different document types, and we will analyse their degree of openness (Schöpfel & Prost, 2014), in comparison to other, grey and non-grey resources. Our intention is to identify particular strategies of scientists, of research laboratories and universities regarding the use of the national open repository HAL. We expect to find typical strategies (or lack of strategies) on the local level of research laboratories, and we will try to assess conditions and variables that may explain these differences. We will discuss potential effects of the visibility, impact and evaluation of the laboratories' research output, and conclude with perspectives on future research. If possible (if available at the date of the conference), additional information from a survey with HAL collection managers will be included. Practical implications The results of the empirical study will contribute to a better understanding and to a consistent and informed development of open access strategies by research laboratories. They will also provide rich data for the assessment of the research output of laboratories. Related costs The study is part of the research project HAL/LO funded by GIS URFIST from 2019-2021 with 10,000 euros.
  • Caprio G. et al.
    Starting from January 2019 the National Institute for Astrophysics' scientists must follow the INAF Open Access Policy, an open access protocol on the results of scientific research, approved by the Board of Directors in December 2018. The Policy was adopted according to various national and European resolutions regarding the open access to the results of publicly funded scientific research, such as the 2012 European Commission Recommendation on scientific information access and its conservation, the Horizon 2020 financial program and the Position statement on the open access to the results of scientific research in Italy signed by INAF in 2013 together with Italian Universities and Research Institutes. INAF follows the Green Road to Open Access with the realization of the institutional repository OA@INAF. The archive contains different types of products. In addition to the more diffuse and common journal articles, conference proceedings and book parts, we decided to give particular importance to the products that do not follow the usual publishing process: Technical reports, Project reports and Working papers, in accordance with the article 29 of the Annotated Model Grant Agreement in Horizon 2020. Technical reports are documents concerning methodologies, projects, instrumental applications and innovation, data harvesting techniques, handbooks and software produced in the various disciplinary fields. The archive also includes the technical reports produced in INAF Observatories and Institutes before January 2019. Starting January 2019, all previous series have been deprecated and the new technical reports must be submitted in the new series INAF Technical reports established with art. 7 of the Policy, conceived in order to valorize them. Each report is proposed to two INAF referees for a light review, then must be approved by the repository administrators. After the control and validation, each report gets a number, a handle and a DOI.
  • Lombardi S.
    As we all know, "grey" doesn't often mean "closed"; maybe sometimes it can mean hard to find. If its sources are open and there are the conditions, the whole document could become an open access one. An example among all is the case of the pre-prints. When you archive a pre-print in a repository you allow the free, open and "grey" pre-print become Open Access to everyone. If the immediately archived "grey" pre-print is open access it can accelerate global knowledge and research advancement. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is making us rethink the way we communicate, search, research and inform; there are some cases of publishers which immediately publish some COVID-19 related articles pre-print; other, instead, are making soon available the accepted manuscript (post-print). Let's us concentrate on pre-prints, closer to "grey" literature. An immediate and open pre-print could accelerate research in some fields and could let researchers (and us) know on time if there is a deadlock or not. Some publishers are following this way. By the way, some pre-prints will never become a published article; in any case knowing those pre-prints let people know why that way is an unpassable one or if some other ways to improve research could be passable. So, when "grey" becomes open this improve and accelerate research, especially in this uncommon period.
  • Mack D.
    The global COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the academy and on scientific research. As universities, libraries, and researchers respond to this worldwide crisis, the inequities in access to critical scientific information have become even more obvious. Many publishers have responded to the pandemic by providing free access to information both to support research about COVID-19, as well as for general support of online teaching and learning as institutions move their curricula to an online environment. While this access is a welcome and important development, it also highlights the need for a global solution to the problem of providing more equitable access to information. Libraries have been leaders in the Open Access (OA) movement. Their activities in support of OA take a variety of forms, including managing institutional repositories, funding article processing charges (APCs), and advocating for OA initiatives within their home institutions. Libraries can also promote OA by addressing this issue in the licenses and contracts they negotiate with publishers. Licensing terms can include stipulations for retention of authors' rights, deposit in institutional and disciplinary repositories, reformatting content for accessibility, and other requirements that promote wider and more equitable access to research. While many institutions already address some of these issues in their contracts, a strategic and united approach to this issue could have a positive global impact on access to critical research. This paper will present a model for libraries to develop a standard set of licensing terms to promote OA and more equitable access to research. As a case study, it will examine the licensing efforts of the University of Maryland, a major public land grant research institution. The University of Maryland Libraries have partnered with the University Senate and the Office of the Provost to create the Publishing, Access, Contract Terms Working Group (UMD PACT). With membership including librarians, teaching and research faculty, students, and administrators, UMD PACT has an ongoing charge to investigate this issue and recommend a new framework for licensing of scholarly content promote more equitable access to scholarly publishing. Using both UMD PACT's efforts and the international response to the pandemic as starting points, this paper will address crucial topics such as accessibility, authors' rights, repository deposit, reformatting, and other licensing provisions. It will present a global survey of licensing frameworks and contract requirements from a variety of institutions, including libraries, universities, research centers, consortia, and publishers. It will also include a comprehensive suite of resources related to OA, accessibility, and the legal and statutory requirements to consider when licensing access to public research, as well as resources to promote the use of grey literature and other content produced outside the formal publishing process. The end result will be a model that will empower libraries to develop their own licensing frameworks to promote more equitable access to scientific and scholarly information and to support global research, teaching, and learning.
  • Gelfand J.M., Lin A.
    As libraries worldwide confront how to make their resources available to users when their physical spaces were locked down as the Coronavirus challenged safety and wellbeing for the public to visit, conversations around "openness" escalated. Open Science manages to be ahead of the curve as the majority of library users find the journal literature in STEM fields increasingly available but not always open. Other forms of information, particularly books and data, grey literature and video content remain behind paywalls and subscription models. As fast changes occur forcing libraries to augment their collections to meet more intense online needs for at least one quarter of this calendar year, it is a time of reckoning to identify priorities for immediate acquisition and licensing. Publishers, societies and information providers stepped up to open their inventories to libraries worldwide and to reduce the demands on non-functioning traditional interlibrary loan services. This generosity aided students with online textbooks, conducted laboratory learning with different resources, relying on more streaming media, activating online access for materials only held in print, and filled gaps for researchers seeking specialized information to respond to added calls for new supplies and products to fight the spread of the virus. The "shower of benevolence" has constrained human resources in addressing how best to curate and promote this open frontier of largesse that may not be part of any permanent collection. Standards and specifications are resources that are high in demand, as innovation, entrepreneurship and fabrication kick into a fast track to produce facial masks, medical gowns, respirators, ventilators, and other breathing devices needed by health care workers and patients. Information about the relationships of COVID-19 to other science conditions such as pollution, air quality, transportation logistics, and supply chains challenge all protocols for social distancing and human interactions. Library collections have multiplied as the roster of new free content proliferates however short term. The demand for alternative digital resources spawned new and temporary grey solutions delivering large collections of content still under copyright while libraries' physical collections are inaccessible. Two contrasting resources emerged: 1) the HathiTrust.org Emergency Temporary Access Service (ETAS). The HathiTrust opened up copyrighted material in the HathiTrust digital library to readers at member institutions with copies of those items in their physical collections. Millions of digitized books available through HathiTrust, which are also in libraries' collections are now available online to those affiliates via authentication. 2) in another more challenging activity is the emotional response the Authors' Guild made to the Internet Archive, which launched the National Emergency Library to offer free access to millions of in-copyright works. Perceptions of content outside of the sciences have welcomed these transformative albeit controversial challenges to copyright by making humanities and social science literature more digitally available as preferences for print are more pronounced in those disciplines. Additional transitions promoting open science and more generally open access includes how the sharing of information as conferences are postponed or cancelled require other creative ways to engage in professional discourse, information transfer and exchanges. Hosting virtual meetings has associated costs, requires new technologies and cloud storage, and requires different planning strategies to execute and scale accordingly with access to the varied content. This new normal, whether temporary or more permanent is an added challenge to grey literature as access expands to the general public in a more open reach. This paper, US centric, will explore a new openness in how libraries have accepted these unprecedented challenges and responded to meeting users' needs on a constantly changing continuum trying to be as disruption free as possible. A survey will be administered to determine how academic libraries have fared through this time and to determine what impact these changes will have on future library priorities, collections and services. The foundations of Open Science secured a baseline for publishers to partner with the library community and provide access to content not as universally available but became open for this juncture. COVID-19 is an unwanted catalyst that expanded the boundaries about how far open science can stretch in this unexpected environment libraries currently navigate.

15:30 – 15:45 Break
15:45 – 17:15Plenary SessionNew Developments in the Field of Grey Literature
  • Cernohlávková P., Vyčítalová H.
    The Czech National Repository of Grey Literature (NUSL) has been bringing GL to science and society over 10 years. It is based on Lisbon definition from 1997, updated in 2004, and on its own document typology that was created in 2008 as one of the outputs of the same name project. Since then there have been several papers and articles calling for new definition and new typology, asking what should be still considered GL and what not anymore. (Savić, 2017; Baxter and Hilbrecht, 2020) Savic (2019) pointed out that if everything can be marked as GL then probably nothing is GL. The NUSL already had to change its typology few times to provide still good service and to reflect research institutions' needs. However, it is not only the document typology that influences the repository and the service, there are other circumstances which affect further development of the NUSL such as partner institutions' needs, the National Research, Development and Innovation Policy, European Commission's guidelines on research outputs, current quantity and quality of other repositories and systems for grey literature and research results in the Czech Republic etc. The contribution/paper will bring a brief overview on NUSL's experience over 10 years of providing the service. Then it will be focused on a current situation in research area of the Czech Republic in detail. Finally, out of these points will conclude to the necessary changes that has to be taken by NUSL and his provider – National Library of Technology in Prague, in order to keep the service meaningful.
  • Potočnik V., Velikonja Š.
    Objective: With constant growth of open science and access to information, access to grey literature also increases. Little is known about grey literature and its use in Slovenia. The purpose of the study is to investigate the use and prevalence of grey literature in Slovenian university libraries. Methods: A survey will be conducted in Slovenian university libraries using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire will be designed to investigate knowing of grey literature among librarians and to identify the categories of grey literature stocked by libraries, the method of acquisition and organization and infuence of open science on accessing grey materials. Anticipated results of the research: The results will show that the use of grey literature is increasing with open science. The survey will also illustrate the different types of grey literature that are being used and it will show also the knowledge of Slovenian librarians about grey literature.
  • Baxter D. et al.
    The grey literature is a valuable body of information that is a necessary component to any evidence-based approach to solving multifaceted social problems. However, the concept of grey literature is complex and precise (Schöpfel, 2010) with one of the defining factors being that it is difficult to find due to the nature of its publication, thus the topic can be unapproachable for unfamiliar audiences who could make good use of it. Therefore, it is important to provide high-quality, contextualized educational materials that explain what grey literature is, why it is valuable, and how to find it. In this talk we present the creation and recent revision of GreyLitGuides.com, a contextualized directory of grey literature educational resources with an emphasis on LibGuides and videos. This resource draws from an environmental scan of grey literature LibGuides presented at GL19 (Carlson et al, 2017). The results were first categorized into major headings based on anticipated grey literature knowledge needs: 1) what is grey literature, 2) how to find grey literature, and 3) subject-specific sources of grey literature. The website was launched in 2019 and announced at the GL21 conference. This year, the GreyNet Education & Training Committee reviewed the resources in detail to create annotations for the directory and added new resources through consultation with GreyNet affiliates via an online survey. The purpose of the survey was two-fold: (1) to encourage affiliates to share resources that they had personally found to be useful for education and training purposes, and (2) to determine how the GreyLitGuides.com website could be enhanced to meet affiliates' information needs for grey literature education and training. The survey brought new and previously overlooked materials to our attention, which will be highlighted in our presentation. It also shed new light on occupational groups, beyond information professionals, that take an active role in grey literature education and training. The results allowed the committee to understand where to focus their dissemination efforts along with preferred information formats.
  • Lipinski T.A., Henderson K.
    In this six-part paper, the authors first define fake science as a concept and identify at a high level the problems and consequences of fake science dissemination especially where fake science is published as grey literature and/or disseminated across social media platforms. In addition, they identify factors contributing to the creation of fake science from the "the replication crisis" in scientific research to the impact of technologies such as Artificial Intelligence. Part 1 also includes a fake science lifecycle graphic. Part 2 moves into the United States Legal Landscape and considers US policy around fake science and related issues illustrated through a detailed discussion of applicable statutes and case law. Specifically, the authors discuss ISP immunity under 47 U.S.C. § 230 and the Constitutional implications of the United States v. Alverez, 132 S. Ct. 2537 (2012) and the decision and the applications of Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp. v. Public Service Commission of New York, 447 U.S. 557 (1980) There will also be consideration of fake grey data as commercial speech or as a deceptive trade practice. Part 3 addresses the European Legal Landscape through a discussion of applicable laws and legal precedents in a similar manner to part 2. Part 4, Comparisons of the United States and European Legal Landscapes looks at the similarities and differences between the United States and Europe in addressing their shared concerns over the creation, use and dissemination of fake scientific information. Part 5, Prevention and Deterrence considers measures and actions which help to reduce the creation of fake science or that mitigate the problems it creates. These measures and actions are presented and incorporated into the fake science lifecycle presented in Part 1, Problem Definition. In Part 6, the authors make recommendations including technology driven solutions designed to ferret out fake science and in turn reducing the serious problems fake science presents. Recommendations include Facebook and other social media AI tools; manually flagging fake data; and the creation of truth seeking algorithms.
  • Baxter D., Nicoll F., Akçayir M.
    Commercial gambling has seen massive global expansion in the past 25 years. It is a huge industry selling a risky form of entertainment: problem gambling is the only non-substance addiction recognized in the DSM-5, affecting an average of 2.3% of people in jurisdictions where prevalence data are available. Gambling also harms people who gamble below the clinical threshold of "problem gambling", as well as the friends, families and communities of people who gamble. Gambling harm is disproportionally felt by racialized peoples and people of lower socioeconomic status. As such, researchers and governments are increasingly viewing gambling as a public health issue. Gambling research is published in both the primary and grey literature, and the integrity of gambling research is a topic of increasingly heated debate. Bibliometric reviews have found that gambling research is heavily focused on the psychological and biological characteristics of people with problem gambling, and not the gambling products themselves and how they are provided. While the gambling grey literature is recognized as valuable by the gambling research community, it has not yet been systematically assessed. In this paper we present the grey literature portion of a larger project to use a big data approach to produce a critical analysis of gambling research from five nations: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States. Our systematic review of the grey literature operationalized an explicit scope of grey literature types and sources that allowed for a thorough and reproducible, and feasible search protocol. For the period of 2014-2018, the grey literature search strategy yielded 360 reports, compared to 1292 articles in the primary literature search strategy. The proportion of grey literature greatly varied by country, ranging from <10% in USA to nearly 50% in New Zealand. Content analysis revealed that the problems investigated in gambling grey literature are very different from the published literature: the top problems in the published literature were young gamblers and online gambling, whereas the top problems in the grey literature were the prevalence of problem gambling and the health and well-being of the public. This demonstrates that the grey literature is a vital piece of the puzzle to understanding this public health issue.

17:15Closing Session



The Poster Gallery will run simultaneously to the Conference on GL2020 website (the URL to access the gallery will be communicated before the conference)

The Poster Prize 2020 will be awarded the week following the close of the Conference. Posters will be judged by a panel of jurors on their innovative content, relevance to the conference topics, graphic design, and submitted abstract.